Solar X-rays:

Geomagnetic Field:

Mechanical waves can be generated by earthquakes or machines that are vibrating.

Electrical and Magnetic waves can be generated in the Ionosphere by lightning or sun spots.

Acoustic waves are vibrations in the air, water, or other fluids, and the most familiar are sound waves. There isn’t sound in space, because there is no air or other fluid to carry the acoustic vibrations.

Electromagnetic waves are waves that vibrate from less than one cycle per second to billions of times per second. The range of vibrations per second includes Radio waves, Visible Light, Infrared light, Ultraviolet light, Gamma rays, and Cosmic Rays.

The higher the frequency, the more energy Electromagnetic waves have. The atmosphere of the Earth protects us from most of the waves (such as Cosmic Rays) that would be harmful to living things. is based on the idea that many types of waves in nature  have a characteristic signature, and that wave signatures can be analyzed to help describe  events and phenomena in the universe. They can be precursors to significant changes and events in the Earth and space. Most of the waveforms described on this web site will be electromagnetic waves and waves in the atmosphere caused by lightning and sunspots. This site is an introduction to these topics. For more detailed information, please search the internet for the terms and concepts mentioned.

Waveform, or waveshape, is usually a graphical representation of a wave that can show its characteristics including frequency, amplitude, phase, duty cycle, and harmonics.

Frequency is the measurement of how many cycles per second a wave passes a fixed point. This is normally represented by Hertz, named after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, who was the first to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves.

Amplitude is a measurement of the height of a wave, from the lower part called the trough, to the highest point called the peak. This is normally measured in volts.

Phase is a measurement of the period of time difference between one wave to another, and is measured from the same point in time. So wave X might have a phase difference of 30 microseconds from wave Y.

Duty cycle is the amount of time that a wave is on, or powered, compared to the time it is off, or not powered. A 50% duty cycle means that a wave is powered half the time.

Harmonics of a wave are waves that occur in multiples of the fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency is the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform. A periodic waveform is a wave that passes a point in space per time period T. If T = 1 second, then the periodic waveform will have a frequency of 1 cycle per second, or 1 Hertz. And if the fundamental frequency is 1000 cycles per second, or 1 Kilohertz, then a third harmonic would be 3 times 1 kilohertz or 3 kilohertz (3,000 cycles per second).