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This is an excellent page on Pulsars from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

A pulsar is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star. It emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation that pulses in a regular, precise duration. Neutron stars are  very dense, and have short, regular rotational periods that are connnected with the extremely strong magnetic fields which spin with them. Durations between pulses can be from sub-milliseconds to seconds.

Observations  of a pulsar in a binary neutron star system were used to indirectly  confirm the existence of gravity waves. The first exoplanet was discovered around a pulsar. 

Several hundred pulsars are now known, and can be observed because their electromagnetic radiation points to Earth where it can be analyzed as you would a constantly turning beam from a lighthouse.

 

Video of the Vela Pulsar in X-Ray light - courtesy of Wikipedia under their article entitled, “Pulsars.”

Pulsar in Stellar Triple System