Solar X-rays:

Geomagnetic Field:

Electromagnetic waves consist of electric and magnetic fields that osscillate in a frequency range from a few pulses per second to multiple billions of times per second. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the electric field. The picture here shows electric waves (red), the magnetic field (gold), and noise (brass colored). Noise can come from power lines, lightning, radio transmitters, space, etc.

The gold (flat) area is the magnetic field, and the red “wires” show the sine waves (electric) waves. The noise has been left out of the picture for clarity. Waves take on various shapes, the 3 most common shapes being square waves, sine waves, and triangular waves. There are many variations of these, depending upon the medium they are traveling through, the system that is producing the wave, outside forces acting upon the wave, the strength of the signal, etc.